1. Monitor Mode & Randomized MAC

Check Network Adapters


Cofigure Monitor Mode

Standard Mode should be Mode:Managed and Power Management: off

Powerdown wifi card

ifconfig wlan0 down

Kill all programs using the wireless card:

airmon-ng check kill

change mode to Monitor

iwconfig wlan0 mode monitor

Randomize MAC Address

macchanger --random wlan0

bring device back up

Bring Device back up

ifconfig wlan0 up

Discover Nearby Networks

airodump-ng wlan0

2. Pre Connection Attacks

I am assuming you already did this:

>>you need to prepare your network card like here<<

Scan Networks

airodump-ng wlan0

You should see something like this:

Bildschirmfoto vom 2023-02-10 18-03-06.png

let's break this down:


Is the MAC Address of the Network


Is the signal strenght or power. The higher the number, the better signal we have


Are the frames send from the Network to broadcast it's existance. Every Network, even if it's hidden, sends this frames to tell the wireless devices that it exists and it's MAC Address, it's channel, it's encryption and it's name


This are the data packages or data frames. They are the packages which get interesting when it comes to wireless hacking


Are the packages which were collected the last 10 seconds


Is the wireless Channel of the Network


Is the Maxinum Speed supported


Is the Encryption used


Cipher used in the Network


is the authentications used in this network. For example PSK (Pre shared key) or MGT


Is the Network Name

Don't worry just jet about ENC, CIPHER and Auth just yet, it will be a part in the gaining Access part of this Wiki

3. WiFi Bands and Frequencies

Now I'd like to talk about WiFi Bands. The Band defines what frequencies it uses to broadcast the signal. That means it also defines the Frequency the Client must have to be able to support and use in order to connect to the network.

The most common frequencies in use are 2.4 and 5 Ghz

The most common WiFi Bands are:

if the Network Name isn't shown, it probably means that your Adapter isn't able to connect to the Network or a router is broadcasting across 2 frequencies or is out of reach.

You can specify which Band airodump-ng listens with the --band flag. For example if you want to specify 5Ghz:

airodump-ng --band a wlan0

if your Wifi Adapter supports all bands, you could scan for multible bands like this:

airodump-ng --band abg wlan0

4. Targeted Packet Sniffing

After scanning via airodump-ng you get like previous stated a similar output like this:

Bildschirmfoto vom 2023-02-10 18-03-06.png

Pic a target network like shown in the ESSID

airodump-ng --bssid 11:22:33:44:55:55 --channel 5 --write ~/test-01 wlan0

You will see someting like this:

Bildschirmfoto vom 2023-02-10 19-23-18.png

Now you'll get several cap files. The interesting one for now is .cap, which can be directly be opened in Wireshark

Bildschirmfoto vom 2023-02-10 19-24-34.png


Bildschirmfoto vom 2023-02-10 19-26-30.png

This Packages are all encrypted. If the Wireless Network wouldn't use any encryption, we could see directly see all the URLs and probably passwords. However the example is encrypted and they also will be the foundation of up coming attacks

5. Gaining Access - WEP Cracking


How Encryption works

WEP Cracking


We can use the tool aircrack-ng to determine the keystream

To crack WEP we need to

I am assuming, you already have done Part 1 and 2 of this tutorial

1. Capture a large amount of Packages/IVs (airodump-ng)

airodump-ng --bssid 11:22:33:44:55:66 --channel 12 --write ~/wep-cap wlan0

2. Analyse the captured IVs and crack the key (aircrack-ng)

aircrack-ng wep-cap.cap

It should look something like this: